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- City History
- Twentieth century
- Twenty-first century
- City Time Line
Thousands of years before Europeans arrived, a large portion of south east Florida, including the area where Miami, Florida exists today, was inhabited by Tequestas. The Tequesta (also Tekesta, Tegesta, Chequesta, Vizcaynos) Native American tribe, at the time of first European contact, occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida. They had infrequent contact with Europeans and had largely migrated by the middle of the 18th century. Miami is named after the Mayaimi, a Native American tribe that lived around Lake Okeechobee until the 17th or 18th century.
In 1566, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was sent by the Spanish monarchy to remove the French from Florida who had already established several colonies. Although Menéndez left behind two Jesuit missionaries in an attempt to convert the Tequesta to Roman Catholicism, the tribe were indifferent to their teachings. The Jesuits returned to St. Augustine after a year. Fort Dallas was built in 1836 and functioned as a military base during the Second Seminole War.
The Miami area was better known as “Biscayne Bay Country” in the early years of its growth. The few published accounts from that period describe the area as a wilderness that held much promise. The area was also characterized as “one of the finest building sites in Florida”. After the Great Freeze of 1894, the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle, a local landowner, convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to Miami. On July 28, 1896, Miami was officially incorporated as a city with a population of just over 300.
Miami prospered during the 1920s, but weakened when the real-estate bubble burst in 1925, which was shortly followed by the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression in the 1930s. When World War II began, Miami played an important role in the battle against German submarines due to its location on the southern coast of Florida. The war helped to increase Miami’s population to almost half a million. After Fidel Castro rose to power in 1959, many Cubans emigrated to Miami, further increasing the population. In the 1980s and 1990s, various crises struck South Florida, among them the Arthur McDuffie beating and the subsequent riot, drug wars, Hurricane Andrew, and the Elián González affair. Despite these, Miami remains a major international, financial, and cultural center.
The city’s name is derived from the Miami River, which is ultimately derived from the Mayaimi people who lived in the area at the time of European colonization.
Though spelled the same in English, the Florida city’s name has nothing to do with the Miami people who lived in a completely different part of North America.
The earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region came from about 10,000 years ago. The region was filled with pine hardwood forests and was home to plenty of deer, bear, and wild fowl. These first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with their main villages on the northern banks. These early Native Americans created a variety of weapons and tools from shells.
When the first Europeans visited in the mid-1500s, the inhabitants of the Miami area were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta Indians fished, hunted, and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food, but did not practice any form of agriculture. They buried the small bones of the deceased, but put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.
In 1513, Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the Miami area by sailing into Biscayne Bay. He wrote in his journal that he reached Chequescha, which was Miami’s first recorded name, but it is unknown whether or not he came ashore or made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing in this area when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés’ missing son, who had been shipwrecked a year earlier. Spanish soldiers, led by Father Francisco Villareal, built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year later, but it was short-lived. By 1570, the Jesuits decided to look for more willing subjects outside of Florida. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fight European-introduced diseases, such as smallpox, without European help. Wars with other tribes greatly weakened their population, and they were easily defeated by the Creek Indians in later battles. By 1711, the Tequesta had sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana to ask if they could migrate there. The Spanish sent two ships to help them, but their illnesses struck, killing most of their population. In 1743, the Spaniards sent another mission to Biscayne Bay, where they built a fort and church. The missionary priests proposed a permanent settlement, where the Spanish settlers would raise food for the soldiers and Native Americans. However, the proposal was rejected as impractical and the mission was withdrawn before the end of the year.
In 1766, Samuel Touchett received a land grant from the British government of 20,000 acres (81 km2) in the Miami area. The grant was surveyed by Bernard Romans in 1772. A condition for making the grant permanent was that at least one white settler had to live on the grant for every 100 acres (0.4 km2) of land. While Touchett wanted to place a plantation on the grant, he was having financial problems and was never able to develop it. The first permanent European settlers in the Miami area arrived around 1800. Pedro Fornells, a Menorcan survivor of the New Smyrna colony, moved to Key Biscayne to meet the terms of his Royal Grant for the island. Although he returned with his family to St. Augustine after six months, he left a caretaker behind on the island. On a trip to the island in 1803, Fornells had noted the presence of squatters on the mainland across Biscayne Bay from the island. In 1825, U.S. Marshal Waters Smith visited the Cape Florida Settlement (which was on the mainland) and conferred with squatters who wanted to obtain title to the land they were occupying. On the mainland, the Bahamian “squatters” had settled along the coast beginning in the 1790s. John Egan had also received a grant from Spain during the Second Spanish Period. John’s son James Egan, his wife Rebecca Egan, his widow Mary “Polly” Lewis, and Mary’s brother-in-law Jonathan Lewis all received 640-acre land grants from the U.S. in present-day Miami. Temple Pent and his family did not receive a land grant, but nevertheless stayed in the area.
Treasure hunters from the Bahamas and the Keys came to South Florida to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida reef, some of whom accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived along with a group of runaway slaves. In 1825, the Cape Florida Lighthouse was built on nearby Key Biscayne to warn passing ships of the dangerous reefs.
In 1830, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from Bahamian James Egan. He built a plantation with slave labor where he cultivated sugarcane, bananas, maize, and tropical fruit. In January 1836, shortly after the beginning of the Second Seminole War, Fitzpatrick removed his slaves and closed his plantation.
The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, where Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s plantation on the north bank of the river. Most of the non-Indian population consisted of soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. The Seminole War was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing almost a total loss of native population in the Miami area. The Cape Florida lighthouse was burned by Seminoles in 1836 and was not repaired until 1846.
After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, re-established the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. When English died in California in 1852, his plantation died with him.
The Miami River lent its name to the burgeoning town, extending an etymology that derives from the Mayaimi Indian tribe. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, and six years later, a census reported that there were ninety-six residents living in the area. The Third Seminole War lasted from 1855 to 1858, but was not nearly as destructive as the previous one. However, it did slow down the rate of settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed and some of the Seminoles remained in the Everglades.
From 1858 to 1896, only a handful of families made their homes in the Miami area. Those that did lived in small settlements along Biscayne Bay. The first of these settlements formed at the mouth of the Miami River and was variously called Miami, Miamuh, and Fort Dallas. Foremost among the Miami River settlers were the Brickells. William Brickell had previously lived in Cleveland, Ohio, California, and Australia, where he met his wife, Mary. In 1870, Brickell bought land on the south bank of the river. The Brickells and their children operated a trading post and post office on their property for the rest of the 19th century.
Other settlements within Miami’s city limits were Lemon City (now Little Haiti) and Coconut Grove. Settlements outside the city limits were Biscayne, in present-day Miami Shores, and Cutler, in present-day Palmetto Bay. Many of the settlers were homesteaders, attracted to the area by offers of 160 acres (0.6 km2) of free land by the United States federal government.
In 1891, a Cleveland woman named Julia Tuttle decided to move to South Florida to make a new start in her life after the death of her husband, Frederick Tuttle. She purchased 640 acres on the north bank of the Miami River in present-day downtown Miami.
She tried to persuade railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railway, southward to the area, but he initially declined. In December 1894, Florida was struck by a freeze that destroyed virtually the entire citrus crop in the northern half of the state. A few months later, on the night of February 7, 1895, the northern part of Florida was hit by another freeze that wiped out the remaining crops and the new trees. Unlike most of the rest of the state, the Miami area was unaffected. Tuttle wrote to Flagler again, asking him to visit the area and to see it for himself. Flagler sent James E. Ingraham to investigate and he returned with a favorable report and a box of orange blossoms to show that the area had escaped the frost. Flagler followed up with his own visit and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. He made the decision to extend his railroad to Miami and build a resort hotel.
On April 22, 1895, Flagler wrote Tuttle a long letter recapping her offer of land to him in exchange for extending his railroad to Miami, laying out a city and building a hotel. The terms provided that Tuttle would award Flagler a 100-acre (0.4 km2) tract of land for the city to grow. Around the same time, Flagler wrote a similar letter to William and Mary Brickell, who had also verbally agreed to give land during his visit.
While the railroad’s extension to Miami remained unannounced in the spring of 1895, rumors of this possibility continued to multiply, fueling real estate activity in the Biscayne Bay area. The news of the railroad’s extension was officially announced on June 21, 1895. In late September, the work on the railroad began and settlers began pouring into the promised “freeze proof” lands. On October 24, 1895, the contract agreed upon by Flagler and Tuttle was approved. With the railroad under construction, activity in Miami began to pick up. Men from throughout Florida flocked to Miami to await Flagler’s call for workers of all qualifications to begin work on the promised hotel and city. By late December 1895, seventy-five of them already were at work clearing the site for the hotel. They lived mostly in tents and huts in the wilderness, which had no streets and few cleared paths. Many of these men were victims of the freeze, which had left both money and work scarce.
On February 1, 1896, Tuttle fulfilled the first part of her agreement with Flagler by signing two deeds to transfer land for his hotel and the 100 acres (0.4 km2) of land near the hotel site to him. The titles to the Brickell and Tuttle properties were based on early Spanish land grants and had to be determined to be clear of conflict before the marketing of the Miami lots began. On March 3, Flagler hired John Sewell from West Palm Beach to begin work on the town as more people came into Miami. On April 7, 1896, the railroad tracks finally reached Miami and the first train arrived on April 13. It was a special, unscheduled train and Flagler was on board. The train returned to St. Augustine later that night. The first regularly scheduled train arrived on the night of April 15. The first week of train service provided only for freight trains; passenger service did not begin until April 22.
On July 28, 1896, the incorporation meeting to make Miami a city took place. The right to vote was restricted to all men who resided in Miami or Dade County. Joseph A. McDonald, Flagler’s chief of construction on the Royal Palm Hotel, was elected chairman of the meeting. After ensuring that enough voters were present, the motion was made to incorporate and organize a city government under the corporate name of “The City of Miami”, with the boundaries as proposed. John B. Reilly, who headed Flagler’s Fort Dallas land company, was the first elected mayor.
Initially, most residents wanted to name the city “Flagler”. However, Henry Flagler was adamant that the new city would not be named after him. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami, named after the Miami River, was incorporated with 502 voters, including 100 registered black voters. The blacks provided the primary labor force for the building of Miami. Clauses in land deeds confined blacks to the northwest section of Miami, which became known as “Colored Town” (today’s Overtown).
Miami experienced a very rapid growth up to World War II. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, there were 5,471 people; and in 1920, there were 29,549 people. As thousands of people moved to the area in the early 20th century, the need for more land quickly became apparent. Until then, the Florida Everglades only extended to three miles (5 km) west of Biscayne Bay. Beginning in 1906, canals were made to remove some of the water from those lands. Miami Beach was developed in 1913 when a two-mile (3 km) wooden bridge built by John Collins was completed. During the early 1920s, the authorities of Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating prohibition, so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region. This caused the Florida land boom of the 1920s, when many high-rise buildings were built. Some early developments were razed after their initial construction to make way for larger buildings. The population of Miami doubled from 1920 to 1923. The nearby areas of Lemon City, Coconut Grove, and Allapattah were annexed in the fall of 1925, creating the Greater Miami area.
However, this boom began to falter due to building construction delays and overload on the transport system caused by an excess of bulky building materials. On January 10, 1926 the Prinz Valdemar, an old Danish warship on its way to becoming a floating hotel, ran aground and blocked Miami Harbor for nearly a month. Already overloaded, the three major railway companies soon declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. The cost of living had skyrocketed and finding an affordable place to live was nearly impossible. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 swept through, ending whatever was left of the boom. The Category 4 storm was the 12th most costly and 12th most deadly to strike the United States during the 20th century. According to the Red Cross, there were 373 fatalities, but other estimates vary, due to the large number of people listed as “missing”. Between 25,000 and 50,000 people were left homeless in the Miami area. The Great Depression followed, causing more than sixteen thousand people in Miami to become unemployed. As a result, a Civilian Conservation Corps camp was opened in the area.
During the mid-1930s, the Art Deco district of Miami Beach was developed. Also during this time, on February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. While Roosevelt was giving a speech in Miami’s Bayfront Park, Giuseppe Zangara, an Italian anarchist, opened fire. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died two weeks later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed. Zangara was quickly tried for Cermak’s murder and was executed by the electric chair on March 20, 1933 in Raiford, Florida.
Also in 1933, the Miami City Commission asked the Miami Women’s Club to create a city flag design. The flag was designed by Charles L. Gmeinder on their behalf, and adopted by City Commission in November 1933. It is unknown why the orange and green colors were selected for the flag. One theory is that the colors were inspired by the orange tree, although the University of Miami was already using the colors of orange and green for their sports teams since 1926.
In 1937 the local Ku Klux Klan raided La Paloma, an LGBT nightclub. After the non-lethal raid the nightclub became a site of a more solidified LGBT community and resistance against conservative sexual laws.
By the early 1940s, Miami was still recovering from the Great Depression when World War II started. Though many of the cities in Florida were heavily affected by the war and went into financial ruin, Miami remained relatively unaffected. Early in the war, German U-boats attacked several American ships including the Portero del Llano, which was attacked and sunk within sight of Miami Beach in May 1942. To defend against the U-boats, Miami was placed in two military districts, the Eastern Defense Command and the Seventh Naval District.
In February 1942, the Gulf Sea Frontier was established to help guard the waters around Florida. By June of that year, more attacks forced military leaders in Washington, D.C. to increase the numbers of ships and men of the army group. They also moved the headquarters from Key West to the DuPont building in Miami, taking advantage of its location at the southeastern corner of the U.S. As the war against the U-boats grew stronger, more military bases sprang up in the Miami area. The U.S. Navy took control of Miami’s docks and established air stations at the Opa-locka Airport and in Dinner Key. The Air Force also set up bases in the local airports in the Miami area.
In addition, many military schools, supply stations, and communications facilities were established in the area. Rather than building large army bases to train the men needed to fight the war, the Army and Navy came to South Florida and converted hotels to barracks, movie theaters to classrooms, and local beaches and golf courses to training grounds. Overall, over five hundred thousand enlisted men and fifty thousand officers were trained in South Florida. After the end of the war, many servicemen and women returned to Miami, causing the population to rise to nearly half a million by 1950.
First Cuban wave
Following the 1959 Cuban revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, most Cubans who were living in Miami returned to Cuba. Soon after, however, many middle class and upper class Cubans moved to Florida en masse with few possessions. Some Miamians were upset about this, especially the African Americans, who believed that the Cuban workers were taking their jobs. In addition, the school systems struggled to educate the thousands of Spanish-speaking Cuban children. Many Miamians, fearing that the Cold War would become World War III, left the city, while others started building bomb shelters and stocking up on food and bottled water. Many of Miami’s Cuban refugees realized for the first time that it would be a long time before they would get back to Cuba. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice daily “freedom flights” from Havana to Miami. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of “Little Havana”. This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. By the end of the 1960s, more than four hundred thousand Cuban refugees were living in Dade County.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant parole, or special permission, to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. To allow these immigrants to stay, the Cuban Adjustment Act was passed in 1966. This act provides that the immigration status of any Cuban who arrived since 1959 who has been physically present in the United States for at least a year “may be adjusted by the Attorney General to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence” (green card holder). The individual must be admissible to the United States (i.e., not disqualified on criminal or other grounds).
Civil Rights Movement
Although Miami is not really considered a major center of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, it did not escape the change that occurred. Miami was a major city in the southern state of Florida, and had always had a substantial African American and black Caribbean population.
On August 7 and 8, 1968, coinciding with the 1968 Republican National Convention, rioting broke out in the black Liberty City neighborhood, which required the Florida National Guard to restore order. Issues were “deplorable housing conditions, economic exploitation, bleak employment prospects, racial discrimination, poor police-community relations, and economic competition with Cuban refugees.”. Overcrowding due to the near-destruction of the black Overtown neighborhood was also a factor.
During the 1970s, Miami was a news leader due to the response to a Dade County ordinance protecting individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Opposition to this ordinance, which was repealed, was led by Florida orange juice spokeswoman, Anita Bryant.
In December 1979, police officers pursued motorcyclist Arthur McDuffie in a high-speed chase after McDuffie made a provocative gesture towards a police officer. The officers claimed that the chase ended when McDuffie crashed his motorcycle and died, but the coroner’s report concluded otherwise. One of the officers testified that McDuffie fell off of his bike on an Interstate 95 on-ramp. When the police reached him he was injured but okay. The officers removed his helmet, beat him to death with their batons, put his helmet back on, and called an ambulance, claiming there had been a motorcycle accident. Eula McDuffie, the victim’s mother, said to the Miami Herald a few days later, “They beat my son like a dog. They beat him just because he was riding a motorcycle and because he was black.” A jury acquitted the officers after a brief deliberation.
After learning of the verdict of the McDuffie case, one of the worst riots in the history of the United States, the Liberty City Riots of 1980, broke out. By the time the rioting ceased three days later, over 850 people had been arrested and at least 18 people had died. Property damage was estimated at around one hundred million dollars.
In March 1980, the first black Dade County schools superintendent, Dr. Johnny L. Jones, was convicted on grand theft charges linked to gold-plated plumbing. His conviction was overturned on appeal and, on July 3, 1986, the state attorney Janet Reno announced that Jones would not be retried on these charges. However, in a separate case, he was convicted on misdemeanor charges of soliciting perjury and witness tampering and received a two-year jail sentence.
The Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami, the largest transport in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960s, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor, some having been released from prisons or mental institutions to make the trip. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community left the city, often referred to as the “white flight”. In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white, but by 1990, it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white.
In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations, such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew in Miami, the area known today as “Little Haiti” emerged, centered on Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In 1985, Xavier Suarez was elected as Mayor of Miami, becoming the first Cuban mayor of a major city. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.
Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay or to Panama. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.
On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to normalize migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.
On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who were repatriated.
These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who made it to shore could stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. Because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.
Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world. It is the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami’s European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income.
Growth as a global city
In the 1980s, Miami became one of the United States’ largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through front organizations into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, major commercial developments and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city’s image as one of America’s most glamorous subtropical paradises.
Miami was host to many dignitaries and notable people throughout the 1980s and ‘90s. Pope John Paul II visited in November 1987, and held an open-air mass for 150,000 people in Tamiami Park. Queen Elizabeth II and three United States presidents also visited Miami. Among them is Ronald Reagan, who has a street named after him in Little Havana. Nelson Mandela’s 1989 visit to the city was marked by ethnic tensions. Mandela had praised Cuban leader Fidel Castro for his anti-apartheid support on ABC News’ Nightline. Because of this, the city withdrew its official greeting and no high-ranking official welcomed him. This led to a boycott by the local African American community of all Miami tourist and convention facilities until Mandela received an official greeting. However, all efforts to resolve it failed for months, resulting in an estimated loss of over US$10 million.
In 1992 Hurricane Andrew, caused more than $20 billion in damage just south of the Miami-Dade area.
Several financial scandals involving the Mayor’s office and City Commission during the 1980s and 1990s left Miami with the title of the United States’ 4th poorest city by 1996. With a budget shortfall of $68 Million and its municipal bonds given a junk bond rating by Wall Street, in 1997, Miami became Florida’s first city to have a state appointed oversight board assigned to it. In the same year, city voters rejected a resolution to dissolve the city and make it one entity with Dade County. The City’s financial problems continued until political outsider Manny Diaz was elected Mayor of Miami in 2001.
In 2000, the Elián González affair was an immigration battle in the Miami area. The controversy concerned six-year-old Elián González who was rescued from the waters off the coast of Miami. The U.S. and the Cuban governments, his father Juan Miguel González, his Miami relatives, and the Cuban-American community of Miami were all involved. The climactic stage of this prolonged battle was the April 22, 2000, seizure of Elián by federal agents, which drew the criticism of many in the Cuban-American community. During the controversy, Alex Penelas, the mayor of Miami-Dade County at the time, vowed that he would do nothing to assist the Bill Clinton administration and federal authorities in their bid to return the six-year-old boy to Cuba. Tens of thousands of protesters, many of whom were outraged at the raid, poured out into the streets of Little Havana and demonstrated. Car horns blared, demonstrators turned over signs, trash cans, and newspaper racks and some small fires were started. Rioters jammed a 10-block area of Little Havana. Shortly afterwards, many Miami businesses closed, as their owners and managers participated in a short, one-day boycott against the city, attempting to affect its tourism industry. Employees of airlines, cruise lines, hotels, car rental companies, and major retailers participated in the boycott. Elián González returned to Cuba with his father on June 28, 2000.
In 2003, the controversial Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiation occurred. It was a proposed agreement to reduce trade barriers while increasing intellectual property rights. During the 2003 meeting in Miami, the Free Trade Area of the Americas was met by heavy opposition from anti-corporatization and anti-globalization protests.
On June 27, 2005, the popular ex-city commissioner Arthur Teele walked into the main lobby of the Miami Herald headquarters, dropped off a package for columnist Jim DeFede, and told the security guard to tell his wife Stephanie he “loved her”, before pulling out a gun and committing suicide. His suicide happened the day the alternative weekly Miami New Times published salacious details of Teele’s alleged affairs, including allegations that Teele had sex with a transsexual prostitute and used cocaine. At the time, Teele was being investigated by federal authorities for fraud and money laundering for allegedly taking $59,000 in kickbacks to help a businessman get millions of dollars in contracts at Miami International Airport. Teele was suspended from his job in 2004 by Florida governor Jeb Bush after being arrested for trying to run a police officer off the road. Teele was also charged in December 2004 with ten counts of unlawful compensation on charges he took $135,000 from TLMC Inc., promising that it would be awarded lucrative contracts to redevelop neighborhoods in Miami. Teele was also found guilty in March 2005 for threatening an undercover detective.
In the latter half of the 2000–2010 decade, Miami saw an extensive boom of high rise architecture, dubbed a “Miami Manhattanization” wave. This included the construction of many of the tallest buildings in Miami, with nearly 20 of the cities tallest 25 buildings finished after 2005. 2008 and 2007 saw the completion of even more of these buildings. This boom transformed the look of downtown Miami, which is now considered to have one of the largest skylines in the United States, ranked behind New York City and Chicago.[A] This boom slowed after the 2008 global financial crisis, with some projects being put on hold and none of the cities tallest buildings being constructed in 2010.
The Port Miami Tunnel connecting Watson Island to PortMiami on Dodge Island, which cost $700 million, was opened in 2014.
In the 2010s, there was a second skyscraper building boom.
History of Miami Florida
- A Spanish mission was among the few significant buildings at the Miami River’s mouth for several centuries. During these years, most visitors were treasure hunters from the Bahamas and most residents were Spanish farmers, who in turn sold land to many of these sailors. .
- Florida achieved American statehood, though shortly before this, the area was a refuge for runaway slaves as well as Seminole Indians.
- One of these settlers, Richard Fitzpatrick, established Fort Dallas on his North Miami River plantation.
- The first natives to Miami resettle after the end of the Spanish rule of Florida.
- William Brickell establishes a trading post on the south side of the Miami River. Henry and Charles Lum purchase 165 acres on South Beach for 75 cents an acre for the purpose of planting and harvesting coconuts.
- Population: county 100.
- The first hotel, The Peacock Inn, is established in Coconut Grove, by Charles and Isabella Peacock. The couple are the first lost to settle in Miami. The Dual Freehold is started to be built as others settle. Forming a two court system. Court of Light and Court of Dark.
- Ralph Munroe builds a home on the bay in Coconut Grove.
- Kirk Munroe establishes a home in Coconut Grove. Charles Lum builds the first home on Miami Beach at the site of the present Tides Hotel.
- Teaching begins in the first school building in Coconut Grove.
- Julia Tuttle moves to Miami. Prophesied that Miami would one day be a great city that would be a center of trade with South America and a gateway to the Americas.
- The coconut venture proves unprofitable for the Lums. They move off the Beach, leaving the plantation in control of John Collins.
- The first public library was established in Coconut Grove by the ladies of the Pine Needles Club. A freeze that destroyed northern Florida crops helped citrus grower Julia Tuttle persuade railroad man Henry Flagler to expand his rail line further south. The following year, the new city of Miami became the only one in the United States to be founded by a woman.
- Miami incorporated; John B. Reilly becomes mayor.
- Florida East Coast Railway (Jacksonville-Miami) arrives in Miami.
- Miami Metropolis newspaper begins publication.
- Biscayne Hotel built.
- John Collins arrives from New Jersey to survey his land on Miami Beach.
- Motivated by a vision of Miami’s future potential or by the desire for more civilization, Henry Flagler completed a railroad to link Miami to Northern Florida and the East Coast of the United States.
- Blacks from the Bahamas were the main part of the labor force, whether they were building the railroad or harvesting vegetables.
- Although Miami’s permanent population was just over 300, its number of rich and famous visitors increased dramatically after the legendary five-floor Royal Palm Hotel first opened its doors. Jewish merchants and black laborers from the Bahamas and other parts of the United States helped to increase the city’s overall size and population even further.
- City of Miami Cemetery established.
- Burdines in business.
- David Fairchild establishes the USDA Plant Introduction Garden.
- Dade County seat relocated to Miami from Juno.
- Telephone service begins in Miami.
- Flagler Public Library, Miami Board of Trade, and Woman’s Club founded.
- Carpenters Local 993 labor union established.
- Peacock Inn was closed down, and turned into Lake Placid School. The Dual Freehold still has control of the school.
- John Sewell becomes mayor.
- Ransom Everglades School is established in Coconut Grove.
- The Miami Herald newspaper begins publication.
- The Army Corps of Engineers dredge the first opening to the Atlantic Ocean, cutting through mangrove swamps at *Government Cut. The project allows for a safer, more direct access to the port of Miami.
- Charles Peacock, dies of natural causes
- Streetcars begin operating.
- Automobile parade.
- Collins extends his land to the north from 14th to 67th Street. He finds native plants which indicate fresh water on the island. His discovery leads him to plant avocados, fruits, and vegetables.
- City Hall built.
- Lummus Park opens.
- Population: 5,471; county 11,933.
- Airport established near Miami.Miami businessmen, the Lummus Brothers, acquire 400 acres to the south of Collins, from 14th Street to Government Cut. They establish the Ocean Beach Realty Company. Their vision: to build a city fronting the ocean made up of modest single family residences.
- Construction begins on Collins Canal.
- Bridge to Miami Beach constructed.
- Lyric Theater opens.
- Carl Fisher arrives in Miami Beach. He too has a vision for the island—a city existing in an of itself - not as an adjunct to the established city of Miami across the bay.
- Fisher acquires the land between 14th and 19th Street; linking Lummus to the south and Collins to the north.
- Collins constructs the Collins Bridge. The bridge connects Miami and Miami Beach; and was awarded the title of being “the longest wagon bridge in the world”.
- Joe’s Stone Crab opens on Miami Beach.
- Construction of Vizcaya begins.The W.J. Brown Hotel, the first hotel on Miami Beach, opens for business.
- Collins Avenue opens on the Beach and is the first paved road suitable for automobiles.
- August 4, World War I begins.
- Miami Chamber of Commerce established.
- Town of Miami Beach incorporated near Miami.
- On March 26, 1915, Collins Lummus, and Fisher consolidate their efforts and incorporate the Town of Miami Beach.
- J.N. Lummus rallies the thirty-three registered voters on the Island and is elected the first mayor of Miami Beach.
- Lummus sells his oceanfront property from 6th Street to 14th street to the city for $40,000. The land is dedicated as a public park and beach, to be named Lummus Park.
- Fisher clears Lincoln Road out of a mangrove swamp with the help of Rosie the Elephant.
- David Fairchild establishes The Kampong, his winter home in Coconut Grove.
- The Lummus brothers offer free lots to anyone who promise to build homes on their land.
- Fisher opens the Lincoln Hotel at the corner of Washington Avenue and Lincoln Road.
- Elser Pier opens.
- Miami Beach changes its status from a town to a city.
- Isabella Peacock died of natural causes. The last founder of the freehold’s death causes sadness and upset among the freehold
- Airdrome Theatre and Strand Theatre open.
- MacArthur Causeway is completed connecting the mainland and 5th Street.
- Coconut Grove is incorporated.
- Great Miami Employers’ Association established.
- Seybold Canal Bridge built (approximate date).
- The Miami Beach land boom begins. Between 1920 and 1929 millionaires like Harvey Firestone, JCPenney, Harvey Stutz, Albert Champion, Frank Seiberling, and Rockwell LaGorce build mansions on the three-mile stretch of Collins Avenue known as “Millionaire’s Row.”
- Fisher opens the Roman Pools and Casino at 22nd Street and the Ocean.
- Fisher’s trolley car system is completed linking the mainland and Miami Beach via the MacArthur Causeway.
- The cities main arteries—5th St., Alton Rd, Collins Ave, Washington Ave, and Ocean Dr. are all suitable for automobile traffic.
- Florida has the highest number of lynchings annually across the United States at this point, per capita, though fewer occurred elsewhere overall.
- The Waystation opens, owned by the Fairchild family. A wolfblood from the family is always selected as the keeper. A second floor is turned into a member’s club for all Supernaturals and Mortal +
- Fisher’s Flamingo Hotel opens at 15th St. and the Bay.
- The Army Corps of Engineers begins construction of Star Island.
- Universal Negro Improvement Association chapter established.
- Population: 29,549; county 42,753.
- Commission-manager form of government adopted.
- WQAM radio begins broadcasting.
- Tamiami Canal Bridge built.
- The Bayshore Golf Course is completed.
- Miami Times newspaper begins publication.
- The Nautilus Hotels opens and the present site of Mount Sinai Hospital.
- Buena Vista becomes part of Miami.
- Miami River Canal Swing Bridge built.
- Fotosho Theatre opens.
- Fisher completes the LaGorce Golf Course, named after his friend, Rockwell LaGorce.
- Julia Tuttle’s family officially comes together as the Family Holdings Company to manage the family’s business in Miami and influence the goings-on in the city.
- Allapattah, Coconut Grove, Lemon City, Silver Bluff, and West Little River become part of Miami.
- Bayfront Park opens.
- Towns of Coral Gables and Hialeah incorporated near Miami.
- University of Miami established in Coral Gables.
- The Rooney Plaza Hotel is completed.
- Construction begins on Espanola Way.
- January 10: Prinz Valdemar ship sinks offshore.
- WIOD radio begins broadcasting.
- Player’s State Theater built.
- Booker T. Washington High School, Olympia Theater, and Tower Theater open.
- Town of Miami Shores incorporated near Miami.
- Wometco – first movie theater, the Capital, opens.
- Lake Placid School moves and the building was torn down. The first cracks started to show when two motelys ended up facing off, what resulted that September during their fight was severe hurricanes striking south Florida, causing extreme flooding and catches the Beach community by surprise and causes substantial loss of life and property damage
- Flagler Theater opens.
- E. G. Sewell becomes mayor.
- Greater Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church built.
- Jewish Floridian newspaper begins publication.
- The Million Dollar Pier is constructed at the southern tip of Miami Beach.
- The Kennel Club opens at the southern tip of Miami beach.
- Construction begins on the second City Hall at Drexel and Washington Ave. in South Beach.
- Temple Beth David, the Beach’s first Synagogue, opens at 3rd and Washington Ave.
- Pan American Field (airfield) begins operating.
- Dade County Agricultural High school built.
- Al Capone buys a home in Miami Beach.
- Sears, Roebuck and Company Department Store opens.
- Flamingo Park is acquired by the city and dedicated as a public facility.
- Tension may have been running high among the Dual Freehold, but thanks to the influx of lost Miami Beach flourishes with a boom of art deco buildings.
- Miami Civic Center opens.
- Population: 110,637.
- Shortly after the Coast Guard Air Station Miami is built and begins operations, the first Lost Boys begin showing up in the city. Those who are no longer officially serving form a group calling themselves the Seventh.
- February 15: Chicago mayor Anton Cermak killed by anarchist in Bayfront Park.
- E. G. Sewell becomes mayor again.
- Ryder, the truck leasing company, founded in Miami.
- January 1: Orange Bowl football contest begins.
- November: Hurricane.
- Dr. Fairchild retired to Miami in 1935 and joined a group of passionate plant collectors and horticulturists who also happened to be his packmates. Once Dr Fairchild retired, more of the Connecticut Fairchilds moved down to Florida. Joining them and helping to keep the Botanic Garden open. Many of them had ties to the Bone Shadow, though some favored Storm Lords as well.
- Parrot Jungle established.
- The Family Holdings Company creates the Executive Circle along with the Seventh to create an organizational infrastructure to manage mortal-supernatural affairs in the city.
- Miami Municipal Airport, Burdine Stadium, and Liberty Square (housing complex) open.
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden opens to the public.
- E. G. Sewell becomes mayor yet again.
- Historical Association of Southern Florida established.
- In 1940, Dr. Fairchild embarked on the Garden’s first official collecting expedition, sailing from the Philippines to the Indonesian archipelago on a special oceangoing Chinese junk called the Cheng Ho. The voyage provided many of the Garden’s early botanical specimens before the outbreak of World War II forced the explorers to return home.
- December 7, Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor.
- The Army Air Corps takes command over Miami Beach.
- Dorsey Memorial Library opens.
- May: Portero del Llano ship sinks offshore during World War II.
- Submarine Chaser Training Center established.
- The Urban League of Greater Miami established.
- The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People branch established in Liberty City.
- Coconut Grove Citizens Committee for Slum Clearance and Civil Rights Congress chapter organized.
- WTVJ (television) begins broadcasting.
- Population: 249,276; county 495,084.
- Museum of Science and Natural History opens on Bayshore Drive.
- Diario Las Américas Spanish-language newspaper begins publication.
- Howard Hughes Medical Institute founded in Miami.
- Burger King founded in Miami.
- Fontainebleau Hotel opens on Miami Beach.
- David Fairchild dies
- Miami Seaquarium established.
- WCKT (television) begins broadcasting.
- Eden Rock Hotel open on Miami Beach.
- WPST-TV (television) begins broadcasting.
- DuPont Plaza Hotel opens for business.
- Robert King High elected mayor of Miami.
- Wealthy Cuban refugees come to Miami, including the occultists in the Ateneo de la Rucio. Given their influence, they are offered membership in the Executive Circle, but they turn down the offer.
- Catholic Diocese of Miami established.
- Upon the founding of the Miami Catholic Diocese (now Archdiocese), the secretive Order of Saint Cervantes de Valladolid came to the city. Originally founded to protect Catholics from Muslim invaders of Spain, the group now protects Catholic communities from supernatural threats throughout Latin America. In Miami, the group has also nominally taken in Santeria practioners both to bolster their ranks but also to keep an eye on them. Given their resources and ability, the Order of Saint Cervantes de Valladolid is easily granted membership in the Executive Circle.
- Fidel Castro takes over as leader of Cuba and the exodus of Cuban refugees to Miami begins. When Fidel Castro took over as leader of Cuba, and Miami was flooded with refugees, that is when the Dual Freehold broke.
- City public schools racially desegregated.
- Dade County Junior College and Centro Hispano Católic founded.
- Miami International Airport dedicated.
- Population: 291,688; county 935,047.
- The freehold was named Silver Lining, as they had found a way to all co exist among the growing city of Miami.
- Colegio de Belén relocates to Miami from Cuba.
- The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba fails.
- Historical Museum of Southern Florida and Cruzada Educativa Cubana established.
- The Cuban missile crisis
- Marian Fairchild dies
- February 25. Cassius Clay defeats Sonny Liston for the heavyweight champion of the world.
- Chuck Hall becomes mayor of Dade County.
- The Kampong is sold to Catherine Sweeney.
- Cuban exiles begin to arrive in the city via U.S.-sponsored “freedom flights”.
- Florida International University established.
- Ediciones Universal in business.
- The Miami Dolphins enter the American Football League as an expansion franchise
- The Jackie Gleason Show begins broadcasting from Miami Beach.
- August 5–8: 1968 Republican National Convention held in nearby Miami Beach.
- August 7–8: 1968 Miami riot.
- Miami Pop Festivals held near city in May and December.
- David T. Kennedy becomes mayor of city; Stephen P. Clark becomes mayor of Dade County.
- Population: 334,859; county 1,267,792.
- Latin Chamber of Commerce established.
- August: 1972 Republican National Convention held in nearby Miami Beach.
- One Biscayne Tower built.
- Jack Orr becomes mayor of Dade County.
- Miami Dolphins complete undefeated season and win the Super Bowl against the Redskins. The Freeholders use their power to help the Miami Dolphins win undefeated. The Alpha pack, annoyed by this, threaten them with war if they ever tried to do that again.
- April: U.S.-sponsored “freedom flight” arrivals to Miami of Cuban exiles ends.
- Barnacle Historic State Park established.
- Maurice Ferre becomes city mayor.
- Dolphins win the Super Bowl against the Vikings.
- Mallory Haversham, the Spring Queen at the time, creates the Ivy Library in a hollow in Coconut Grove. Open to all freehold members of good standing, the library is built upon over the following years to cover topics both mystical and mundane.
- Stephen P. Clark becomes mayor of Dade County again.
- Spanish American League Against Discrimination headquartered in city.
- The Bee Gees move to Miami Beach.
- El Miami Herald Spanish-language newspaper begins publication.
- Bicentennial Park opens.
- Foreign trade zone established.
- Black Archives History & Research Foundation of South Florida headquartered in city.
- Omni International Mall in business.
- After a handful of alarming decisions, the Winter Queen is assassinated by her own motley. The sorrow felt by the court at the loss of their long standing Queen brought about the coldest winter in Miami history, leading to the only report of snowfall in the city.
- The Miami Beach Architectural District is listed in the United States national register as a historic landmark.
- The Family Holdings Company re-organizes into FHC, LLC. The Tuttles continue to influence the city via wealth and psychic ability.
- May: race riots in Overtown and Liberty City after the death of Arthur McDuffie.
- April–October: Cubans arrive in city via Mariel boatlift. The Mariel boatlift brings 140,000 Cubans to Florida
- Miami MetroZoo opens near city.
- Population: 346,865;
- Palace apartment building constructed.
- Cuban American National Foundation headquartered in city.
- Knight International Center (convention center) opens.
- Facts About Cuban Exiles organization established.
- The movie Scarface is filmed in Miami.
- Christo unveils Surrounded Islands.
- By this point, the Executive Circle has made contact with vampires, werewolves, changelings, and beasts within Miami; however, they have also met apparent cast-offs with no societies of their own. Some claim descent from ancient Atlantean bloodlines, some are strange oracles touched by some kind of machine-god, and others, even stranger things. With the assistance of the Executive Circle, the group unites under the banner of the Miami Infoshop, a collective united for their own protection.
- Metrorail begins operating.
- Center for Fine Arts
- Miami International Film Festival begins.
- Southeast Financial Center built on Biscayne Boulevard.
- Fictional Miami Vice television program begins national broadcast founded and ran on NBC from 1984 to 1989.
- First edition of the Miami International Book Fair.
- First year of filming
- Catherine Sweeney donates the Kampong to the then Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden (now National Tropical Botanical Garden), and remained its principal sponsor
- Miami SunPost newspaper begins publication.
- Xavier Suarez becomes city mayor.
- Stephen P. Clark Government Center built.
- The Golden Girls, a television sitcom, begins its seven-year run.
- Miami City Ballet debuts.
- Lincoln Center built.
- A circle of loyalists, led by the current Spring seneschal, that was using the chaos of the most recent influx of Cuban immigrants into the city to return Lost to their keepers in Arcadia is discovered and promptly dismantled. This leads to a shake up in the court leadership as a whole, removing the ruling council and replacing it with a more fluid system.
- November: Pope John Paul II visits city.
- Miami New Times newspaper in publication.
- Miami Tower built.
- Lummus Park is listed in the United States national register as a historic landmark.
- Nelson Mandela visits city.
- Ileana Ros-Lehtinen becomes U.S. representative for Florida’s 18th congressional district.
- Knight Foundation headquartered in city.
- Population: 358,548; county 1,937,094.
- The Herd appear in Miami, a group of lost who all shared the same keeper. It’s rumored that they are the cause of the Brony Fad. Initial discrimination leads to the creation of their own unofficial Freehold apart from the Silver Lining
- Greater Miami population grows to nearly 2 million.
- August: Hurricane Andrew. Hurricane Andrew hits south Dade County causing $30 billion in damage.
- The Summer General receives a report of huntsmen activity around the Herd and sends his best motley ahead to defend them. The motley limits those taken to four and pursues them into the Hedge, losing most of their members to successfully rescue them. Sacrificing themselves to protect the Herd, despite their previous discrimination, broke down the barrier between the two groups and unified the Herd and the Silver Lining
- Stephen P. Clark becomes city mayor.
- Carrie P. Meek becomes U.S. representative for Florida’s 17th congressional district.
- Eleventh Street (Metromover station) opens.
- 1st Summit of the Americas held in city.
- Catherine Sweeney dies
- Willy Gort becomes mayor of city, succeeded by Joe Carollo; Alex Penelas becomes mayor of Dade County.
- City website online (approximate date).
- Pottinger v. City of Miami homeless-related lawsuit decided.
- Liberty City Charter School established.
- May 12: Tornado.
- November: Mayoral election held.
- Dade County renamed Miami-Dade County.
- Gionni Versace’s is murdered on the steps of his Ocean Drive estate, Casa Casuarina.
- January: Xavier Suarez becomes mayor again.
- March: Mayoral election results of 1997 judged invalid; Carollo becomes mayor again.
- Electrowave bus service begins operating on Miami Beach.
- American Airlines Arena opens.
- Ultra Festival begins.
- Elián González affair.
- Miami Beach named #1 Urban Beach by Surfrider Foundation.
- January 18, 2001, Morris Lapidus dies in Miami Beach.
- Population: 362,470; county 2,253,362.
- Town of Miami Lakes incorporated near Miami.
- Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami founded.
- Manny Diaz becomes city mayor.
- A mysterious figure in the Miami underworld, known only as The Moroccan, opens the Night Lotus club in town. The Night Lotus serves as a peaceful neutral ground between the city’s criminal factions and its rules are enforced with brutal efficiency. Thus, The Moroccan helps end the violent public wars between the city’s criminal factions. The Moroccan’s organization, Niqibat Altijara, also lobbies and gains membership in the Executive Circle. Only the Cubans allied with the Ateneo de la Rucio do not join the Moroccan’s faction in the end, but still remain largely at peace.
- Art Basel begins in Miami Beach.
- Population: 88,000
- March 26, 2003, the City of Miami Beach celebrates it’s 88th birthday.
- Four Seasons Hotel Miami built.
- City of Miami Gardens incorporated near Miami.
- On the Summer Solstice, the Apocalypse motley challenges the reigning motley for leadership in Hedge combat and wins. To avoid the vulnerability this would cause during Summer’s reign, the other courts agree to assist in defending the freehold during the event and many gain goodwill with the court as a result.
- Carlos Alvarez becomes mayor of Miami-Dade County.
- Carnival Center opens.
- The Mirror of Paradise, a mobile goblin market known for traveling the high seas, anchors at Fisher Key for the first time since the 1926 hurricanes. Its appearance on the night of the new moon every month offers new methods of finding treasures from the Hedge and farther afield.
- Ferguson U.S. Courthouse built.
- Fictional Burn Notice television series begins its seven-year run.
- Marquis Residences and 900 Biscayne Bay built on Biscayne Boulevard.
- The Herd was one of the supporters urging Mayor Matti Bower to offically give their Gay Pride Parade the City Sanction. The sanction was given.
- Tomás Regalado becomes city mayor.
- Port of Miami Tunnel construction begins.
- Population: 399,457; county 2,496,435; metro 5,564,635.
- Carlos A. Giménez becomes mayor of Miami-Dade County.
- Vice City Rollers (roller derby league) formed.
- Frederica Wilson becomes U.S. representative for Florida’s 17th congressional district.
- Marco Rubio presidential campaign, 2016 headquartered in Miami.
- The Ivy Library receives its first proper technological upgrade thanks to the role of Archivist being taken up by a computer-savvy Elemental by the name of Jordan Flynn, with a number of Hedge-friendly computers granting access to knowledge previously unavailable to its patrons.
- January: City revises its illegal-immigrant sanctuary policy.
- The Darkling Autumn Queen, Elizabeth Monroe, abruptly abdicates the crown before the hand-off going into the season is set to occur, stating that personal studies and other business would take her away from being able to lead the court properly. The role is taken up by the Paladin of Shadows, a Wizened by the name of Robyn Castillo, who has served in the position since.
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